by Joelle Steele

Here is a short dictionary of terms relating to the design process and marketing for graphic designers, publishers, and Web site owners.

Adjacent. a color scheme that uses three colors found next to each other on a color wheel

Apple. a computer made by MacIntosh

Balance. whether a design is symmetrical or asymmetrical

Banner. a graphic image that appears on top of a web page

Bitmap. a file format in which photos and images are saved

Bleed. when a printed ad extends to the trim edges of the page

Bluelines. a proof, printed in blue ink, showing you what the finished product will look like, for approval prior to printing

Bond. a strong and permanent grade of paper

Bookmark. a place on a page to which you can point with a hyperlink and go directly to a place on the page

Brochure. a pamphlet or booklet, usually bound, sometimes folded

Bulk mail. mail that consists of over 200 pieces that is sorted by zip code and mailed at a reduced postage rate

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS). a system of style sheets groups in a hierarchy according to their importance

Character set. complete set of letters, figures, and symbols in a font

Circulation. the quantity and geographical character of the reader audience of a publication

Clip art. images and graphics that are available in electronic format or in books for use in advertising, books, websites, etc.

CMYK. color mode used for commercial printing

Coated paper. paper that has been coated on one or both sides giving it a slick, shiny surface

Complementary. a color scheme using colors that are directly opposite each other on a color wheel; the highest contrast combination of colors

Compression. reducing the size of a computer file for space or to transmit via the Internet

Contrast. the emphasis of one design element or characteristic over another, often making one more prominent than the other

Copy. the text of an ad or an article

Copyright. legal documentation designating ownership of printed or recorded rights to an original work

Creep. an adjustment made to the placement of text on a page so that when compiled into a book or catalog, the text is always centered properly on the page

Cropping. eliminating unwanted portions of a photo

Cross-platform. exchanging files between a PC and a Mac platform

CSS. see "Cascading style sheets"

Database. computerized file of names, addresses, phone numbers, etc.

Demographics. breakdown of a readership based upon one or many designations such as occupation, income, age, etc.

Direct mail. mailings directed to individuals in a targeted market

DPI. dots per inch, determines resolution of images based on number of pixels in a photo or image, with 72 dpi being low resolution for Internet use, and 300 dpi and up high resolution for print work

Dreamweaver. a software program used to create Web sites

Drop shadow. a shadow that shows behind a piece of text or an image

Duotone. two halftone plates made from the same original but to different tone ranges so that when printed together a greater tone range is produced than is possible in one color

EPS. Encapsulated PostScript file in which images are saved

Expression Web. a software program used to create Web sites that conform to W3C standards

Fixed space. space between words or characters not variable for justification purposes in a text

Flushleft/right. aligning the edges of a text to either the left or right hand side of a page, or both

Font. a set of characters of the same design which may include variations in italic or boldface

Format. the style of a printed publication consisting of the margin sizes, printing requirements, size, typefaces, etc.

FrontPage. a software program, now outdated but still in use, for creating Web sites

Galley proof. a proof in which type is proofed in a column format, usually on a long narrow sheet of paper

Gang. several pieces of art printed together on the same press run

GIF. Graphics Interchange Format, highly compressed file format used to save images, usually for the Internet

Grayscale. a color mode with 256 shades ranging from white to black

Hard copy/proof. a piece of paper with typefaces and text ready to be approved for final printing

Hardware. the computer itself, consisting of the central processing unit (CPU), monitor, keyboard, modem, etc., exclusive of software

Home page. the first page that appears when a website is opened

House correction. corrections to proofs which are made by someone other than the author before proofs are offered for approval

HTML. Hypertext Markup Language, programming language used to create web pages

Hyperlink. a word or group of words that links to another place in a website or to another Web site

Illustration. an image, usually drawn or painted by hand or by computer, used to enhance a written document such as a book, advertisement, brochure, Web page, etc.

Illustrator. a computer program used to create illustrations, logos, and other images

Image. any photo or graphic presentation, or the portion of a page that contains the text and/or the photos or graphics

Image area. the printing and ink-carrying areas of a litho printing plate or of any printed piece that will have an image in it

Inkjet. a printing process created by shooting ink in small streams onto paper

Internet. a global network of computers that provides communication services to individuals and others; the place where websites are posted

Italic. the slanted or sloped version of a font

Java. a programming language used to programs (not to be confused with JavaScript)

JavaScript. a scripting language used to create small, often interactive, programs on the Internet/Web

JPEG. Joint Photographic Experts Group, a compressed file format used to save photos or images for use on the Internet

Justification. see "Flushleft/right"

Laser printing. an image is created by modulating a laser on and off according to digital information relayed by a computer, and then transferring the image to paper by an electrostatic printing system

Layout. the organization of text and pictures on a board with instructions about sizing for reproduction or printing

Leading. the amount of space between lines of printed text

Letterset. offset letterpress printing, also called dry offset

Line art. artwork entirely in black on white with no intermediary tones and not requiring a halftone for reproduction

Line copy. see "Line art"

Line drawing. see "Line art"

Litho. see "Lithographic printing"

Lithographic printing. the image and non-image surfaces are the same plate and the paper makes contact with the whole plate surface; the printing area is treated to accept ink and the non-printing surface is treated to attract water or some other solution that rejects ink

Logo. a graphic or pictorial image associated with a company

Logotype. several letters or a word on one body of type such as company emblems; see also "Logo"

Mac. short for the MacIntosh computer

Mail merge. a means of doing personalized letters on a computer by accessing a database through word processing software

Market. a group of individuals or companies with a specific buying characteristic

Market share. the percentage of the market which a company may have as clients

Media. the specific manner in which advertising is published or aired, such as printed media or broadcast media

Meta tag. an HTML code that allows search engines to find a website

Monochromatic. a color scheme that uses a single color with varied intensities or shades; the most subtle of all color combinations

Movement. see "rhythm"

PC. Personal Computer, an IBM-format computer

PDF. Portable Document Format file used to provide a document in a form that anyone can read who has Adobe Acrobat Reader or a similar software; a file format now required by many commercial printers

Photoshop. a software program used to edit and otherwise manage images, particularly photos

Placement. the part of the publication in which your advertisement will be, such as top right hand page, in the first 15 pages, etc.

Platform. the underlying structure of a computer, such as a PC or Mac platform

PR. see "Public relations"

Proof. copy of printed matter submitted for approval prior to printing

Public relations. the activities of, and manner in which, an individual or members of a company conduct themselves in their industry and in the community which conveys their image

Readership. the rough estimate of possible readers of a publication

Reproduction. the entire printing process from the completion of typesetting until lithographic plates reach the press

Resolution. refers to the number of pixels in an image, with more pixels giving more clarity and the ability to better enlarge or edit an image

Retouching. treatment of a photographic image to modify it or remove imperfections prior to reproduction

RGB. color mode used to view photos or images onscreen/online and on Web sites

Rhythm. adding patterns, colors, or textures that cause the eye to move through a design in order to experience it

Rough. an unfinished layout or design

Sans serif. a typeface without serifs

Scale. the relationship of design elements to each other in terms of their sizes

Proportion. the relationship of one design element to another in terms of their sizes

Serif. the small terminating strokes on individual letters or characters

Software. the programs that enable the computer's hardware to perform certain functions such as word processing, or graphics, or database management

Space available. a term used by publishers designating that they will place an ad wherever there is room in the publication

Spot color. a line or graphic portion which is printed in color to stand out from the rest of the text

Spread. a double-page spread when an illustration or advertisement takes up the center pages of a section

Style sheet. a set of rules that can be systematically applied to the text of a document, such as boldfacing, italics, underlining, double-spacing, etc.

Target. to direct efforts towards reaching a specific group, as in targeting your market

Text. see "Copy"

Texture. the tactile surface of a design, whether it is real to the touch or perceivable only to the eyes

TIF. abbreviation for Tagged Image File Format, a file format in which a graphic image is saved, usually for printing and also for archiving images

Tone. the gradation from light to dark in black or any color, contrasted with line work that has no intermediate tones

Trap. a manual or software-driven device used to block out parts of a page of printing that are going to be printed in a color

Triadic. a color scheme using three colors spread equally throughout a design

Typeface. the size and style of a set of characters in a font such as Arial, Times Roman, Dutch, Garamond, Onyx, Bookman, Courier, etc.

Typeset. the arrangement of text in its chosen font, presented in a manner ready for reproduction

Typo. short for typographical error, or any error made in typesetting

URL. an Internet or website address

Web. the World Wide Web or the Internet

Web page. one of the pages that comprises a website

Web site. a collection of pages posted/published to the Internet

Word processing. software that allows you to type letters and reports and merge them with your database records for a direct mailing

XHTML. the most current version of the HTML programming language as of 2009.